Types of Natural Stone:
Based on its composition there are two types of natural stone: Siliceous and Calcareous. Knowing your type of stone will help you make an informed decision when selecting maintenance and cleaning products. Stones that are composed of silica or quartz are siliceous. This type of stone is more durable and easier to clean compared to calcareous stone. Granite, slate, sandstone, quartzite, brownstone and bluestone are of siliceous stone. Calcium carbonate is the main component of calcareous stones. Calcium carbonate is very sensitive to acidic juices and cleaning products. Example of calcareous stone are marble, travertine, limestone and onyx.
Natural stones come from different parts of the world in a variety of colors examples. While the samples are intended to represent the product, each slab may differ slightly in color and veining. Even a single slab may have color variations from one end to the other. It is easy to determine if your stone is calcareous or siliceous with acid sensitivity test. You can use 4 Oz. 10% solution of muriatic acid or household vinegar. Using an eye dropper apply a few drops of the solution to the stone. If it starts to bubble or fizz then the stone is calcareous. If there is no reaction to the solution, your stone is siliceous. Clean the area with water and dry surface thoroughly. You might have to chip a small area to apply the solution because if there is a sealer on the surface, this test may not be accurate.
WARNING: Apply the solution to an area that is not easily visible because it may stain the stone permanently. Please use eye and body protection when using corrosive and hazardous materials such as muriatic acid.
Natural Stone Finish Types:
Polished Finish: Stone with a polished finish has a glossy surface. This finish brings out the color and the pattern of the stone better than other finish types. Polished finish is not recommended for high traffic areas as the polish can wear off.
Honed Finish: Smooth surface with little or no gloss. This type of finish is used for locations where heavy traffic occurs.
Brushed Finish: Acourse surface this stone is brushed with a rotary type wire brush to achieve this type of finish with coarse surface.
Flamed Finish: Rough textured surface that exposes grains of stone.